A chordal ring is an augmented ring, or a circulant graph with a chord of length 1. Formally it is defined by the pair (n,L) where n is the number of nodes of the ring, and L is the set of chords, . Each chord connects every pair of nodes of the ring that are at distance l in the ring. We denote by , , the chordal ring defined by . The dimension of is t+1. Let us emphasize that the degree of chordal rings is 2t in general, except whenever there is a chord of length n/2. In this case n is even and the degree is 2t-1.
A ``natural'' labeling of the nodes for chordal rings is the cyclic labeling: Consecutive labeling of nodes around the ring. This labeling is not always the best possible one. For instance, [KL95] showed that has no shortest path 1-IRS with cyclic labeling whereas it is of compactness 1. In fact it is possible to characterize graphs supporting a shortest path 1-IRS according a cyclic labeling of nodes.
By the use of the Ádám property, [Man98] showed that is isomorphic to if and only if . For instance , which has no shortest path 1-IRS with cyclic labeling (cf. [KL95]), is isomorphic to which satisfies Theorem 26. Therefore, .
Let . Since is of diameter i (cf. [BCH95]), it follows that 1- , for every . (Actually, is the chordal ring of degree 4 with the largest number of nodes for a given diameter). Moreover, in [NO97], it is shown that 1- . Also, the smallest chordal ring known to be of compactness greater than 1 is , and 1- . [NO97] showed that there exists some chordal rings, , where every shortest path IRS using a cyclic labeling requires intervals, and also that has no shortest path 1-IRS of stretch factor with a cyclic labeling. Other results about directed chordal rings are mentioned in [KL95].
For two chords we have:
And for higher dimensions,
The latter result can be easily generalized to when , and for every i.
In [FGS94] is presented several results concerning IRS without the disjointness property of the labels assigned to the arcs, i.e., with Condition 2b of Definition 1 relaxed. See Paragraph 4.3 for a discussion of these results.
Note also that most of the results extend to circulant graphs in general, i.e., does not need to specify the chord of length 1.